„Auch aus Steinen, die einem in den Weg gelegt werden, kann man Schönes bauen.“ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
„Auch aus Steinen, die einem in den Weg gelegt werden, kann man Schönes bauen.“Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 

September 2017

MARTINA REINICKE

MORAL COMPETENCE 4.0- A TASK OF THE SCHOOL?

Presentation at the conference

“Moral competence: A brand new research topic in cognitive psychology, ethics and law”, AMU University, Poznan, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

Inclusion is a dynamic process of continuous conflict solution between the right to equal participation on the one hand and the claim to difference on the other hand.

This requires different conditions as well as competencies of all persons which are involved in education process. However, in addition to the diagnostic competencies of teachers and educators and other "conditions of success", also the establishment of moral education into the educational process is urgently required.

In this context, moral education is not to be understood as education of our pupils and students to better persons.

Moral education means to educate children and adolescents to self-conscious people, who are able to represent their opinions openly and honestly as well as in accordance with their actual inner attitudes.

Furthermore, our pupils should possess the ability to solve conflicts fair and nonviolent.

Only in this way can be arise a behaviour with which is respected the dignity of the other- regardless which particularities has someone.

In my presentation, I will give a short historical overview of inclusion-research. The focus lies on relation between moral and inclusion. I will demonstrate three branches of inclusion research and deduce my definition of inclusion from it.

Inclusion can be understood as the dynamic process of realizing of equal participation on the one hand and of entitlement to diversity on the other hand. That means, inclusion lives from the solution of its immanent conflict- the conflict between equality and diversity.

Therefore, I assume that “the ability to solve problems and conflicts on the basis of universal moral principles by means of deliberation and discussion, instead of using violence, deceit and coercion, or more specifically… the ability to judge arguments in regard to their moral quality instead of their opinion-agreement” (Lind, 2016) is urgently needed.

This ability is an important precondition for realizing inclusion. Following educational theory of morality by Lind and others, it’s not necessary to change the moral attitudes (moral orientation) of persons which are involved in the process of inclusion. It’s more important to improve their inclusive ability and their inclusive behaviour. How above mentioned, inclusive behaviour means a behaviour which respects the dignity of the others. 

Furthermore, I want to present a little research project. The aim of this project is to improve the inclusive behaviour by using the Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion®.

 

 

 

Keywords: inclusion, inclusive behaviour, moral education, moral competence

 

 

 

 

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References

Avramidis, E. & Kalyva, E. (2007): The Influence of Teaching Experience and Professional   Development on Greek Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion. European Journal of   Special Needs Education. Vol. 22(4). pp. 367–389.

Bloom, P. (2013): Just Babies. The Origin of Good and Evil. New York: Grown Publishers Dewey, J. (2009): Democracy and Education. Wilder Publications: Radford. Eagly, A. & Chaiken, S. (2007): The Advantages of an Inclusive Definition of Attitude.   Social Cognition, Vol. 25, Special Issue: What Is an Attitude? pp: 582-602.

Fleras, A. & Leonard E. (2002): Engaging diversity. Multiculturalism in Canada. Toronto:  Nelson Thomson. 

Geißler, R. (2003): Multikulturalismus in Kanada – ein Modell für Deutschland? In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (APUZ). Part 26, pp.19–25.

Hemmerling, K., Scharlipp, M., & Lind, G. (2009): Die Konstanzer Methode der Dilemma Diskussion für die Bildungsarbeit mit Risikogruppen. In K. Mayer & H.  Schildknecht (Eds.) Handbuch Dissozialität, Delinquenz und Kriminalität. Grundlagen und Methoden der professionellen Arbeit mit Menschen mit abweichendem Verhalten. Zürich: Schulthess Juristische Medien.

Kant, I. (1990): Eine Vorlesung über Ethik. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag.

Kruse, P. (2004): Next Practice. Erfolgreiches Management von Instabilität. Offenbach:  Gabal. 

Latzko, B. & Malti, T. (2010): Moralische Erziehung in Kindheit und Adoleszenz. Göttingen:  Hogrefe.

Lind, G., (1992): Rekonstruktion des Kohlberg-Ansatzes: Das Zwei-Aspekte-Modell der Moralentwicklung. In F. Oser & W. Althof (Eds.), Moralische Selbstbestimmung. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

Lind, G. (2015): Moral ist lehrbar. Munich: Oldenburg Verlag.

Lind, G. (2016): How to Teach Morality. Berlin: Logos.

Lind, G. (2013). Moralische Kompetenz und Globale Demokratie. In Rohbeck, J. &   Tiedemann, M. (Eds.) Philosophie und Verständigung in der pluralistischen   Gesellschaft. Jahrbuch für Didaktik der Philosophie und Ethik 14. Dresden: Thelem.

Nowak, E., Schrader, D. & Zizek, B. (2013): Educating competencies for democracy Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Nunner-Winkler, G. (2007): Zum Verständnis von Moral- Entwicklungen in der Kindheit.   In Horster, D. (Eds.) Moralentwicklung von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Wiesbaden:  VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Nunner-Winkler, G., Meyer-Nikele, M., & Wohlrab, D. 2006. Integration durch Moral. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. pp. 51-76.

Stoiber, K. C., Gettinger, M., & Goetz, D. 1998. "Exploring Factors Influencing Parents’ and   Early Childhood Practitioners’ Beliefs About Inclusion." Early Childhood Research   Quarterly, vol. 13(1): 107–124.   

Verne, L. 2013. "Early Childhood educator's beliefs about inclusion and perceived support.   UC Berkeley Electronic Theses and Dissertations. p. 31.

Weltzer, H. 2016. Die smarte Diktatur. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag.

Zisek, B.; Garz, D.; Nowak, E. (2015): Kohlberg Revisited. Rotterdam: Sense Publisher.  

 

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